Linear Symmetric Quantization of Neural Networks for Low-precision Integer Hardware

Xiandong Zhao, Ying Wang, Xuyi Cai, Cheng Liu, Lei Zhang

Keywords: acceleration, batch normalization, quantization

Abstract: With the proliferation of specialized neural network processors that operate on low-precision integers, the performance of Deep Neural Network inference becomes increasingly dependent on the result of quantization. Despite plenty of prior work on the quantization of weights or activations for neural networks, there is still a wide gap between the software quantizers and the low-precision accelerator implementation, which degrades either the efficiency of networks or that of the hardware for the lack of software and hardware coordination at design-phase. In this paper, we propose a learned linear symmetric quantizer for integer neural network processors, which not only quantizes neural parameters and activations to low-bit integer but also accelerates hardware inference by using batch normalization fusion and low-precision accumulators (e.g., 16-bit) and multipliers (e.g., 4-bit). We use a unified way to quantize weights and activations, and the results outperform many previous approaches for various networks such as AlexNet, ResNet, and lightweight models like MobileNet while keeping friendly to the accelerator architecture. Additional, we also apply the method to object detection models and witness high performance and accuracy in YOLO-v2. Finally, we deploy the quantized models on our specialized integer-arithmetic-only DNN accelerator to show the effectiveness of the proposed quantizer. We show that even with linear symmetric quantization, the results can be better than asymmetric or non-linear methods in 4-bit networks. In evaluation, the proposed quantizer induces less than 0.4\% accuracy drop in ResNet18, ResNet34, and AlexNet when quantizing the whole network as required by the integer processors.

Similar Papers

Steven K. Esser, Jeffrey L. McKinstry, Deepika Bablani, Rathinakumar Appuswamy, Dharmendra S. Modha,
Mixed Precision DNNs: All you need is a good parametrization
Stefan Uhlich, Lukas Mauch, Fabien Cardinaux, Kazuki Yoshiyama, Javier Alonso Garcia, Stephen Tiedemann, Thomas Kemp, Akira Nakamura,