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Fantastic Four: Differentiable and Efficient Bounds on Singular Values of Convolution Layers

Sahil Singla · Soheil Feizi

Keywords: [ spectral normalization ] [ spectral regularization ]


In deep neural networks, the spectral norm of the Jacobian of a layer bounds the factor by which the norm of a signal changes during forward/backward propagation. Spectral norm regularizations have been shown to improve generalization, robustness and optimization of deep learning methods. Existing methods to compute the spectral norm of convolution layers either rely on heuristics that are efficient in computation but lack guarantees or are theoretically-sound but computationally expensive. In this work, we obtain the best of both worlds by deriving {\it four} provable upper bounds on the spectral norm of a standard 2D multi-channel convolution layer. These bounds are differentiable and can be computed efficiently during training with negligible overhead. One of these bounds is in fact the popular heuristic method of Miyato et al. (multiplied by a constant factor depending on filter sizes). Each of these four bounds can achieve the tightest gap depending on convolution filters. Thus, we propose to use the minimum of these four bounds as a tight, differentiable and efficient upper bound on the spectral norm of convolution layers. Moreover, our spectral bound is an effective regularizer and can be used to bound either the lipschitz constant or curvature values (eigenvalues of the Hessian) of neural networks. Through experiments on MNIST and CIFAR-10, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our spectral bound in improving generalization and robustness of deep networks.

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