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Outstanding Paper Session 2

Moderators: Amir Globerson · Piotr Koniusz


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Thu 6 May 0:00 - 0:15 PDT

Rethinking Architecture Selection in Differentiable NAS

Ruochen Wang · Minhao Cheng · Xiangning Chen · Xiaocheng Tang · Cho-Jui Hsieh

Differentiable Neural Architecture Search is one of the most popular Neural Architecture Search (NAS) methods for its search efficiency and simplicity, accomplished by jointly optimizing the model weight and architecture parameters in a weight-sharing supernet via gradient-based algorithms. At the end of the search phase, the operations with the largest architecture parameters will be selected to form the final architecture, with the implicit assumption that the values of architecture parameters reflect the operation strength. While much has been discussed about the supernet's optimization, the architecture selection process has received little attention. We provide empirical and theoretical analysis to show that the magnitude of architecture parameters does not necessarily indicate how much the operation contributes to the supernet's performance. We propose an alternative perturbation-based architecture selection that directly measures each operation's influence on the supernet. We re-evaluate several differentiable NAS methods with the proposed architecture selection and find that it is able to extract significantly improved architectures from the underlying supernets consistently. Furthermore, we find that several failure modes of DARTS can be greatly alleviated with the proposed selection method, indicating that much of the poor generalization observed in DARTS can be attributed to the failure of magnitude-based architecture selection rather than entirely the optimization of its supernet.

Thu 6 May 0:15 - 0:30 PDT

Complex Query Answering with Neural Link Predictors

Erik Arakelyan · Daniel Daza · Pasquale Minervini · Michael Cochez

Neural link predictors are immensely useful for identifying missing edges in large scale Knowledge Graphs. However, it is still not clear how to use these models for answering more complex queries that arise in a number of domains, such as queries using logical conjunctions ($\land$), disjunctions ($\lor$) and existential quantifiers ($\exists$), while accounting for missing edges. In this work, we propose a framework for efficiently answering complex queries on incomplete Knowledge Graphs. We translate each query into an end-to-end differentiable objective, where the truth value of each atom is computed by a pre-trained neural link predictor. We then analyse two solutions to the optimisation problem, including gradient-based and combinatorial search. In our experiments, the proposed approach produces more accurate results than state-of-the-art methods --- black-box neural models trained on millions of generated queries --- without the need of training on a large and diverse set of complex queries. Using orders of magnitude less training data, we obtain relative improvements ranging from 8% up to 40% in Hits@3 across different knowledge graphs containing factual information. Finally, we demonstrate that it is possible to explain the outcome of our model in terms of the intermediate solutions identified for each of the complex query atoms. All our source code and datasets are available online, at

Thu 6 May 0:30 - 0:45 PDT

Optimal Rates for Averaged Stochastic Gradient Descent under Neural Tangent Kernel Regime

Atsushi Nitanda · Taiji Suzuki

We analyze the convergence of the averaged stochastic gradient descent for overparameterized two-layer neural networks for regression problems. It was recently found that a neural tangent kernel (NTK) plays an important role in showing the global convergence of gradient-based methods under the NTK regime, where the learning dynamics for overparameterized neural networks can be almost characterized by that for the associated reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). However, there is still room for a convergence rate analysis in the NTK regime. In this study, we show that the averaged stochastic gradient descent can achieve the minimax optimal convergence rate, with the global convergence guarantee, by exploiting the complexities of the target function and the RKHS associated with the NTK. Moreover, we show that the target function specified by the NTK of a ReLU network can be learned at the optimal convergence rate through a smooth approximation of a ReLU network under certain conditions.

Thu 6 May 0:45 - 0:55 PDT

Beyond Fully-Connected Layers with Quaternions: Parameterization of Hypercomplex Multiplications with $1/n$ Parameters

Aston Zhang · Yi Tay · Shuai Zhang · Alvin Chan · Anh Tuan Luu · Siu Hui · Jie Fu

Recent works have demonstrated reasonable success of representation learning in hypercomplex space. Specifically, “fully-connected layers with quaternions” (quaternions are 4D hypercomplex numbers), which replace real-valued matrix multiplications in fully-connected layers with Hamilton products of quaternions, both enjoy parameter savings with only 1/4 learnable parameters and achieve comparable performance in various applications. However, one key caveat is that hypercomplex space only exists at very few predefined dimensions (4D, 8D, and 16D). This restricts the flexibility of models that leverage hypercomplex multiplications. To this end, we propose parameterizing hypercomplex multiplications, allowing models to learn multiplication rules from data regardless of whether such rules are predefined. As a result, our method not only subsumes the Hamilton product, but also learns to operate on any arbitrary $n$D hypercomplex space, providing more architectural flexibility using arbitrarily $1/n$ learnable parameters compared with the fully-connected layer counterpart. Experiments of applications to the LSTM and transformer models on natural language inference, machine translation, text style transfer, and subject verb agreement demonstrate architectural flexibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Thu 6 May 0:55 - 1:05 PDT