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GraphCare: Enhancing Healthcare Predictions with Personalized Knowledge Graphs

Pengcheng Jiang · Cao Xiao · Adam Cross · Jimeng Sun

Halle B #32
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Tue 7 May 1:45 a.m. PDT — 3:45 a.m. PDT


Clinical predictive models often rely on patients’ electronic health records (EHR), but integrating medical knowledge to enhance predictions and decision-making is challenging. This is because personalized predictions require personalized knowledgegraphs (KGs), which are difficult to generate from patient EHR data. To address this, we propose GraphCare, an open-world framework that uses external KGs to improve EHR-based predictions. Our method extracts knowledge from large language models (LLMs) and external biomedical KGs to build patient-specific KGs, which are then used to train our proposed Bi-attention AugmenTed(BAT) graph neural network (GNN) for healthcare predictions. On two public datasets, MIMIC-III and MIMIC-IV, GraphCare surpasses baselines in four vital healthcare prediction tasks: mortality, readmission, length of stay (LOS), and drug recommendation. On MIMIC-III, it boosts AUROC by 17.6% and 6.6% for mortality and readmission, and F1-score by 7.9% and 10.8% for LOS and drug recommendation, respectively. Notably, GraphCare demonstrates a substantial edge in scenarios with limited data availability. Our findings highlight the potential of using external KGs in healthcare prediction tasks and demonstrate the promise of GraphCare in generating personalized KGs for promoting personalized medicine.

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