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Matryoshka Diffusion Models

Jiatao Gu · Shuangfei Zhai · Yizhe Zhang · Joshua Susskind · Navdeep Jaitly

Halle B #246
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Thu 9 May 7:30 a.m. PDT — 9:30 a.m. PDT


Diffusion models are the de-facto approach for generating high-quality images and videos, but learning high-dimensional models remains a formidable task due to computational and optimization challenges. Existing methods often resort to training cascaded models in pixel space, or using a downsampled latent space of a separately trained auto-encoder. In this paper, we introduce Matryoshka Diffusion (MDM), an end-to-end framework for high-resolution image and video synthesis. We propose a diffusion process that denoises inputs at multiple resolutions jointly and uses a NestedUNet architecture where features and parameters for small-scale inputs are nested within those of large scales. In addition, MDM enables a progressive training schedule from lower to higher resolutions, which leads to significant improvements in optimization for high-resolution generation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on various benchmarks, including class-conditioned image generation, high-resolution text-to-image, and text-to-video applications. Remarkably, we can train a single pixel-space model at resolutions of up to 1024x1024 pixels, demonstrating strong zero-shot generalization using the CC12M dataset, which contains only 12 million images. Code and pre-trained checkpoints are released at

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