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HYPO: Hyperspherical Out-Of-Distribution Generalization

Haoyue Bai · Yifei Ming · Julian Katz-Samuels · Yixuan Li

Halle B #189
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Thu 9 May 1:45 a.m. PDT — 3:45 a.m. PDT


Out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization is critical for machine learning models deployed in the real world. However, achieving this can be fundamentally challenging, as it requires the ability to learn invariant features across different domains or environments. In this paper, we propose a novel framework HYPO (HYPerspherical OOD generalization) that provably learns domain-invariant representations in a hyperspherical space. In particular, our hyperspherical learning algorithm is guided by intra-class variation and inter-class separation principles—ensuring that features from the same class (across different training domains) are closely aligned with their class prototypes, while different class prototypes are maximally separated. We further provide theoretical justifications on how our prototypical learning objective improves the OOD generalization bound. Through extensive experiments on challenging OOD benchmarks, we demonstrate that our approach outperforms competitive baselines and achieves superior performance. Code is available at

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