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Protein Multimer Structure Prediction via Prompt Learning

Ziqi Gao · Xiangguo SUN · Zijing Liu · Yu Li · Hong Cheng · Jia Li

Halle B #4
[ ]
Wed 8 May 1:45 a.m. PDT — 3:45 a.m. PDT


Understanding the 3D structures of protein multimers is crucial, as they play a vital role in regulating various cellular processes. It has been empirically confirmed that the multimer structure prediction (MSP) can be well handled in a step-wise assembly fashion using provided dimer structures and predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs). However, due to the biological gap in the formation of dimers and larger multimers, directly applying PPI prediction techniques can often cause a poor generalization to the MSP task. To address this challenge, we aim to extend the PPI knowledge to multimers of different scales (i.e., chain numbers). Specifically, we propose PromptMSP, a pre-training and Prompt tuning framework for Multimer Structure Prediction. First, we tailor the source and target tasks for effective PPI knowledge learning and efficient inference, respectively. We design PPI-inspired prompt learning to narrow the gaps of two task formats and generalize the PPI knowledge to multimers of different scales. We provide a meta-learning strategy to learn a reliable initialization of the prompt model, enabling our prompting framework to effectively adapt to limited data for large-scale multimers. Empirically, we achieve both significant accuracy (RMSD and TM-Score) and efficiency improvements compared to advanced MSP models.

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