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MG-TSD: Multi-Granularity Time Series Diffusion Models with Guided Learning Process

Xinyao Fan · Yueying Wu · Chang XU · Yu-Hao Huang · Weiqing Liu · Jiang Bian

Halle B #172
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Wed 8 May 1:45 a.m. PDT — 3:45 a.m. PDT


Recently, diffusion probabilistic models have attracted attention in generative time series forecasting due to their remarkable capacity to generate high-fidelity samples. However, the effective utilization of their strong modeling ability in the probabilistic time series forecasting task remains an open question, partially due to the challenge of instability arising from their stochastic nature. To address this challenge, we introduce a novel Multi-Granularity Time Series Diffusion (MG-TSD) model, which achieves state-of-the-art predictive performance by leveraging the inherent granularity levels within the data as given targets at intermediate diffusion steps to guide the learning process of diffusion models. The way to construct the targets is motivated by the observation that forward process of the diffusion model, which sequentially corrupts the data distribution to a standard normal distribution, intuitively aligns with the process of smoothing fine-grained data into a coarse-grained representation, both of which result in a gradual loss of fine distribution features. In the study, we derive a novel multi-granularity guidance diffusion loss function and propose a concise implementation method to effectively utilize coarse-grained data across various granularity levels.More importantly, our approach does not rely on additional external data, making it versatile and applicable across various domains. Extensive experiments conducted on real-world datasets demonstrate that our MG-TSD model outperforms existing time series prediction methods.

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