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Oral 2A

Halle A 8 - 9

Moderator: Sabera Talukder

Tue 7 May 6:45 a.m. PDT — 7:30 a.m. PDT
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Tue 7 May 6:45 - 7:00 PDT

MetaGPT: Meta Programming for A Multi-Agent Collaborative Framework

Sirui Hong · Mingchen Zhuge · Jonathan Chen · Xiawu Zheng · Yuheng Cheng · Jinlin Wang · Ceyao Zhang · zili wang · Steven Yau · Zijuan Lin · Liyang Zhou · Chenyu Ran · Lingfeng Xiao · Chenglin Wu · J├╝rgen Schmidhuber

Recently, remarkable progress has been made on automated problem solving through societies of agents based on large language models (LLMs). Previous LLM-based multi-agent systems can already solve simple dialogue tasks. More complex tasks, however, face challenges through logic inconsistencies due to cascading hallucinations caused by naively chaining LLMs. Here we introduce MetaGPT, an innovative meta-programming framework incorporating efficient human workflows into LLM-based multi-agent collaborations. MetaGPT encodes Standardized Operating Procedures (SOPs) into prompt sequences for more streamlined workflows, thus allowing agents with human-like domain expertise to verify intermediate results and reduce errors. MetaGPT utilizes an assembly line paradigm to assign diverse roles to various agents, efficiently breaking down complex tasks into subtasks involving many agents working together. On collaborative software engineering benchmarks, MetaGPT generates more coherent solutions than previous chat-based multi-agent systems.

Tue 7 May 7:00 - 7:15 PDT

Understanding In-Context Learning in Transformers and LLMs by Learning to Learn Discrete Functions

Satwik Bhattamishra · Arkil Patel · Phil Blunsom · Varun Kanade

In order to understand the in-context learning phenomenon, recent works have adopted a stylized experimental framework and demonstrated that Transformers can match the performance of gradient-based learning algorithms for various classes of real-valued functions. However, the limitations of Transformers in implementing learning algorithms, and their ability to learn other forms of algorithms are not well understood. Additionally, the degree to which these capabilities are confined to attention-based models is unclear. Furthermore, it remains to be seen whether the insights derived from these stylized settings can be extrapolated to pretrained Large Language Models (LLMs). In this work, we take a step towards answering these questions by demonstrating the following: (a) On a test-bed with a variety of Boolean function classes, we find that Transformers can nearly match the optimal learning algorithm for 'simpler' tasks, while their performance deteriorates on more 'complex' tasks. Additionally, we find that certain attention-free models perform (almost) identically to Transformers on a range of tasks. (b) When provided a teaching sequence, i.e. a set of examples that uniquely identifies a function in a class, we show that Transformers learn more sample-efficiently. Interestingly, our results show that Transformers can learn to implement two distinct algorithms to solve a single task, and can adaptively select the more sample-efficient algorithm depending on the sequence of in-context examples. (c) Lastly, we show that extant LLMs, e.g. LLaMA-2, GPT-4, can compete with nearest-neighbor baselines on prediction tasks that are guaranteed to not be in their training set.

Tue 7 May 7:15 - 7:30 PDT

Self-RAG: Learning to Retrieve, Generate, and Critique through Self-Reflection

Akari Asai · Zeqiu Wu · Yizhong Wang · Avi Sil · Hannaneh Hajishirzi

Despite their remarkable capabilities, large language models (LLMs) often produce responses containing factual inaccuracies due to their sole reliance on the parametric knowledge they encapsulate. Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG), an ad hoc approach that augments LMs with retrieval of relevant knowledge, decreases such issues. However, indiscriminately retrieving and incorporating a fixed number of retrieved passages, regardless of whether retrieval is necessary, or passages are relevant, diminishes LM versatility or can lead to unhelpful response generation. We introduce a new framework called Self-Reflective Retrieval-Augmented Generation (Self-RAG) that enhances an LM's quality and factuality through retrieval and self-reflection. Our framework trains a single arbitrary LM that adaptively retrieves passages on-demand, and generates and reflects on retrieved passages and its generations using special tokens, called {\it reflection} tokens. Generating reflection tokens makes the LM controllable during the inference phase, enabling it to tailor its behavior to diverse task requirements. Experiments show that Self-RAG (7B and 13B parameters) significantly outperforms state-of-the-art LLMs and retrieval-augmented models on a diverse set of tasks. Specifically, Self-RAG outperforms ChatGPT and retrieval-augmented Llama2-chat on Open-domain QA, reasoning, and fact verification tasks, and it shows significant gains in improving factuality and citation accuracy for long-form generations relative to these models. Our code and trained models are available at