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Oral 4D

Halle A 3

Moderator: Rene Vidal

Wed 8 May 6:45 a.m. PDT — 7:30 a.m. PDT


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Wed 8 May 6:45 - 7:00 PDT

Honorable Mention
Amortizing intractable inference in large language models

Edward Hu · Moksh Jain · Eric Elmoznino · Younesse Kaddar · Guillaume Lajoie · Yoshua Bengio · Nikolay Malkin

Autoregressive large language models (LLMs) compress knowledge from their training data through next-token conditional distributions. This limits tractable querying of this knowledge to start-to-end autoregressive sampling. However, many tasks of interest---including sequence continuation, infilling, and other forms of constrained generation---involve sampling from intractable posterior distributions. We address this limitation by using amortized Bayesian inference to sample from these intractable posteriors. Such amortization is algorithmically achieved by fine-tuning LLMs via diversity-seeking reinforcement learning algorithms: generative flow networks (GFlowNets). We empirically demonstrate that this distribution-matching paradigm of LLM fine-tuning can serve as an effective alternative to maximum-likelihood training and reward-maximizing policy optimization. As an important application, we interpret chain-of-thought reasoning as a latent variable modeling problem and demonstrate that our approach enables data-efficient adaptation of LLMs to tasks that require multi-step rationalization and tool use.

Wed 8 May 7:00 - 7:15 PDT

Monte Carlo guided Denoising Diffusion models for Bayesian linear inverse problems.

Gabriel Cardoso · Yazid Janati el idrissi · Sylvain Le Corff · Eric Moulines

Ill-posed linear inverse problems arise frequently in various applications, from computational photography to medical imaging.A recent line of research exploits Bayesian inference with informative priors to handle the ill-posedness of such problems.Amongst such priors, score-based generative models (SGM) have recently been successfully applied to several different inverse problems.In this study, we exploit the particular structure of the prior defined by the SGM to define a sequence of intermediate linear inverse problems. As the noise level decreases, the posteriors of these inverse problems get closer to the target posterior of the original inverse problem. To sample from this sequence of posteriors, we propose the use of Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods.The proposed algorithm, \algo, is shown to be theoretically grounded and we provide numerical simulations showing that it outperforms competing baselines when dealing with ill-posed inverse problems in a Bayesian setting.