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Oral 5A

Halle A 8 - 9

Moderator: Thomas Kipf

Thu 9 May 1 a.m. PDT — 1:45 a.m. PDT


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Thu 9 May 1:00 - 1:15 PDT

Outstanding Paper
Generalization in diffusion models arises from geometry-adaptive harmonic representations

Zahra Kadkhodaie · Florentin Guth · Eero Simoncelli · Stéphane Mallat

Deep neural networks (DNNs) trained for image denoising are able to generate high-quality samples with score-based reverse diffusion algorithms. These impressive capabilities seem to imply an escape from the curse of dimensionality, but recent reports of memorization of the training set raise the question of whether these networks are learning the "true" continuous density of the data. Here, we show that two DNNs trained on non-overlapping subsets of a dataset learn nearly the same score function, and thus the same density, when the number of training images is large enough. In this regime of strong generalization, diffusion-generated images are distinct from the training set, and are of high visual quality, suggesting that the inductive biases of the DNNs are well-aligned with the data density. We analyze the learned denoising functions and show that the inductive biases give rise to a shrinkage operation in a basis adapted to the underlying image. Examination of these bases reveals oscillating harmonic structures along contours and in homogeneous regions. We demonstrate that trained denoisers are inductively biased towards these geometry-adaptive harmonic bases since they arise not only when the network is trained on photographic images, but also when it is trained on image classes supported on low-dimensional manifolds for which the harmonic basis is suboptimal. Finally, we show that when trained on regular image classes for which the optimal basis is known to be geometry-adaptive and harmonic, the denoising performance of the networks is near-optimal.

Thu 9 May 1:15 - 1:30 PDT

Diffusion Model for Dense Matching

Jisu Nam · Gyuseong Lee · Seonwoo Kim · Inès Hyeonsu Kim · Hyoungwon Cho · Seyeon Kim · Seungryong Kim

The objective for establishing dense correspondence between paired images con- sists of two terms: a data term and a prior term. While conventional techniques focused on defining hand-designed prior terms, which are difficult to formulate, re- cent approaches have focused on learning the data term with deep neural networks without explicitly modeling the prior, assuming that the model itself has the capacity to learn an optimal prior from a large-scale dataset. The performance improvement was obvious, however, they often fail to address inherent ambiguities of matching, such as textureless regions, repetitive patterns, large displacements, or noises. To address this, we propose DiffMatch, a novel conditional diffusion-based framework designed to explicitly model both the data and prior terms for dense matching. This is accomplished by leveraging a conditional denoising diffusion model that explic- itly takes matching cost and injects the prior within generative process. However, limited input resolution of the diffusion model is a major hindrance. We address this with a cascaded pipeline, starting with a low-resolution model, followed by a super-resolution model that successively upsamples and incorporates finer details to the matching field. Our experimental results demonstrate significant performance improvements of our method over existing approaches, and the ablation studies validate our design choices along with the effectiveness of each component. Code and pretrained weights are available at

Thu 9 May 1:30 - 1:45 PDT

Generative Modeling with Phase Stochastic Bridge

Tianrong Chen · Jiatao Gu · Laurent Dinh · Evangelos Theodorou · Joshua Susskind · Shuangfei Zhai

Diffusion models (DMs) represent state-of-the-art generative models for continuous inputs. DMs work by constructing a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) in the input space (ie, position space), and using a neural network to reverse it. In this work, we introduce a novel generative modeling framework grounded in \textbf{phase space dynamics}, where a phase space is defined as {an augmented space encompassing both position and velocity.} Leveraging insights from Stochastic Optimal Control, we construct a path measure in the phase space that enables efficient sampling. {In contrast to DMs, our framework demonstrates the capability to generate realistic data points at an early stage of dynamics propagation.} This early prediction sets the stage for efficient data generation by leveraging additional velocity information along the trajectory. On standard image generation benchmarks, our model yields favorable performance over baselines in the regime of small Number of Function Evaluations (NFEs). Furthermore, our approach rivals the performance of diffusion models equipped with efficient sampling techniques, underscoring its potential as a new tool generative modeling.