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Conditional Negative Sampling for Contrastive Learning of Visual Representations

Mike Wu · Milan Mosse · Chengxu Zhuang · Daniel Yamins · Noah Goodman

Keywords: [ MoCo ] [ hard negative mining ] [ lower bound ] [ contrastive learning ] [ detection ] [ segmentation ] [ mutual information ]


Recent methods for learning unsupervised visual representations, dubbed contrastive learning, optimize the noise-contrastive estimation (NCE) bound on mutual information between two transformations of an image. NCE typically uses randomly sampled negative examples to normalize the objective, but this may often include many uninformative examples either because they are too easy or too hard to discriminate. Taking inspiration from metric learning, we show that choosing semi-hard negatives can yield stronger contrastive representations. To do this, we introduce a family of mutual information estimators that sample negatives conditionally -- in a "ring" around each positive. We prove that these estimators remain lower-bounds of mutual information, with higher bias but lower variance than NCE. Experimentally, we find our approach, applied on top of existing models (IR, CMC, and MoCo) improves accuracy by 2-5% absolute points in each case, measured by linear evaluation on four standard image benchmarks. Moreover, we find continued benefits when transferring features to a variety of new image distributions from the Meta-Dataset collection and to a variety of downstream tasks such as object detection, instance segmentation, and key-point detection.

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