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Scalable Neural Network Kernels

Arijit Sehanobish · Krzysztof Choromanski · YUNFAN ZHAO · Kumar Dubey · Valerii Likhosherstov

Halle B #49
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Tue 7 May 7:30 a.m. PDT — 9:30 a.m. PDT


We introduce the concept of scalable neural network kernels (SNNKs), the replacements of regular feedforward layers (FFLs), capable of approximating the latter, but with favorable computational properties. SNNKs effectively disentangle the inputs from the parameters of the neural network in the FFL, only to connect them in the final computation via the dot-product kernel. They are also strictly more expressive, as allowing to model complicated relationships beyond the functions of the dot-products of parameter-input vectors. We also introduce the neural network bundling process that applies SNNKs to compactify deep neural network architectures, resulting in additional compression gains. In its extreme version, it leads to the fully bundled network whose optimal parameters can be expressed via explicit formulae for several loss functions (e.g. mean squared error), opening a possibility to bypass backpropagation. As a by-product of our analysis, we introduce the mechanism of the universal random features (or URFs), applied to instantiate several SNNK variants, and interesting on its own in the context of scalable kernel methods. We provide rigorous theoretical analysis of all these concepts as well as an extensive empirical evaluation, ranging from point-wise kernel estimation to Transformers' fine-tuning with novel adapter layers inspired by SNNKs. Our mechanism provides up to 5x reduction in the number of trainable parameters, while maintaining competitive accuracy.

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