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PF-GNN: Differentiable particle filtering based approximation of universal graph representations

Mohammed Haroon Dupty · Yanfei Dong · Wee Sun Lee


Keywords: [ graph representation learning ] [ graph neural networks ]

Abstract: Message passing Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are known to be limited in expressive power by the 1-WL color-refinement test for graph isomorphism. Other more expressive models either are computationally expensive or need preprocessing to extract structural features from the graph. In this work, we propose to make GNNs universal by guiding the learning process with exact isomorphism solver techniques which operate on the paradigm of $\textit{Individualization and refinement}$ (IR), a method to artificially introduce asymmetry and further refine the coloring when 1-WL stops. Isomorphism solvers generate a search-tree of colorings whose leaves uniquely identify the graph. However, the tree grows exponentially large and needs hand-crafted pruning techniques which are not desirable from a learning perspective. We take a probabilistic view and approximate the search tree of colorings ( i.e. embeddings) by sampling multiple paths from root to leaves of the search-tree. To learn more discriminative representations, we guide the sampling process with $\textit{particle filter}$ updates, a principled approach for sequential state estimation. Our algorithm is end-to-end differentiable, can be applied with any GNN as backbone and learns richer graph representations with only linear increase in runtime. Experimental evaluation shows that our approach consistently outperforms leading GNN models on both synthetic benchmarks for isomorphism detection as well as real-world datasets.

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