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CrowdPlay: Crowdsourcing Human Demonstrations for Offline Learning

Matthias Gerstgrasser · Rakshit Trivedi · David Parkes


Crowdsourcing has been instrumental for driving AI advances that rely on large-scale data. At the same time, reinforcement learning has seen rapid progress through benchmark environments that strike a balance between tractability and real-world complexity, such as ALE and OpenAI Gym. In this paper, we aim to fill a gap at the intersection of these two: The use of crowdsourcing to generate large-scale human demonstration data in the support of advancing research into imitation learning and offline learning.To this end, we present CrowdPlay, a complete crowdsourcing pipeline for any standard RL environment including OpenAI Gym (made available under an open-source license); a large-scale publicly available crowdsourced dataset of human gameplay demonstrations in Atari 2600 games, including multimodal behavior and human-human and human-AI multiagent data; offline learning benchmarks with extensive human data evaluation; and a detailed study of incentives, including real-time feedback to drive high quality data.We hope that this will drive the improvement in design of algorithms that account for the complexity of human, behavioral data and thereby enable a step forward in direction of effective learning for real-world settings. Our code and dataset are available at

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