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Einops: Clear and Reliable Tensor Manipulations with Einstein-like Notation

Alex Rogozhnikov


Tensor computations underlie modern scientific computing and deep learning.A number of tensor frameworks emerged varying in execution model, hardware support, memory management, model definition, etc.However, tensor operations in all frameworks follow the same paradigm.Recent neural network architectures demonstrate demand for higher expressiveness of tensor operations.The current paradigm is not suited to write readable, reliable, or easy-to-modify code for multidimensional tensor manipulations. Moreover, some commonly used operations do not provide sufficient checks and can break a tensor structure.These mistakes are elusive as no tools or tests can detect them.Independently, API discrepancies complicate code transfer between frameworks.We propose einops notation: a uniform and generic way to manipulate tensor structure, that significantly improves code readability and flexibility by focusing on the structure of input and output tensors.We implement einops notation in a Python package that efficiently supports multiple widely used frameworks and provides framework-independent minimalist API for tensor manipulations.

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