Keywords: [ semi-supervised learning ] [ keypoint localization ] [ curriculum learning ]
Localizing keypoints of an object is a basic visual problem. However, supervised learning of a keypoint localization network often requires a large amount of data, which is expensive and time-consuming to obtain. To remedy this, there is an ever-growing interest in semi-supervised learning (SSL), which leverages a small set of labeled data along with a large set of unlabeled data. Among these SSL approaches, pseudo-labeling (PL) is one of the most popular. PL approaches apply pseudo-labels to unlabeled data, and then train the model with a combination of the labeled and pseudo-labeled data iteratively. The key to the success of PL is the selection of high-quality pseudo-labeled samples. Previous works mostly select training samples by manually setting a single confidence threshold. We propose to automatically select reliable pseudo-labeled samples with a series of dynamic thresholds, which constitutes a learning curriculum.Extensive experiments on five keypoint localization benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art SSL approaches.