Keywords: [ self-supervision ] [ interpretability ] [ electroencephalography ] [ graph neural network ] [ visualization ] [ time series ] [ neuroscience ]
Automated seizure detection and classification from electroencephalography (EEG) can greatly improve seizure diagnosis and treatment. However, several modeling challenges remain unaddressed in prior automated seizure detection and classification studies: (1) representing non-Euclidean data structure in EEGs, (2) accurately classifying rare seizure types, and (3) lacking a quantitative interpretability approach to measure model ability to localize seizures. In this study, we address these challenges by (1) representing the spatiotemporal dependencies in EEGs using a graph neural network (GNN) and proposing two EEG graph structures that capture the electrode geometry or dynamic brain connectivity, (2) proposing a self-supervised pre-training method that predicts preprocessed signals for the next time period to further improve model performance, particularly on rare seizure types, and (3) proposing a quantitative model interpretability approach to assess a model’s ability to localize seizures within EEGs. When evaluating our approach on seizure detection and classification on a large public dataset (5,499 EEGs), we find that our GNN with self-supervised pre-training achieves 0.875 Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve on seizure detection and 0.749 weighted F1-score on seizure classification, outperforming previous methods for both seizure detection and classification. Moreover, our self-supervised pre-training strategy significantly improves classification of rare seizure types (e.g. 47 points increase in combined tonic seizure accuracy over baselines). Furthermore, quantitative interpretability analysis shows that our GNN with self-supervised pre-training precisely localizes 25.4% focal seizures, a 21.9 point improvement over existing CNNs. Finally, by superimposing the identified seizure locations on both raw EEG signals and EEG graphs, our approach could provide clinicians with an intuitive visualization of localized seizure regions.