Node Feature Extraction by Self-Supervised Multi-scale Neighborhood Prediction

Eli Chien · Wei-Cheng Chang · Cho-Jui Hsieh · Hsiang-Fu Yu · Jiong Zhang · Olgica Milenkovic · Inderjit Dhillon


Keywords: [ self-supervised learning ] [ graph neural networks ]

[ Abstract ]
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Wed 27 Apr 6:30 p.m. PDT — 8:30 p.m. PDT

Abstract: Learning on graphs has attracted significant attention in the learning community due to numerous real-world applications. In particular, graph neural networks (GNNs), which take \emph{numerical} node features and graph structure as inputs, have been shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance on various graph-related learning tasks. Recent works exploring the correlation between numerical node features and graph structure via self-supervised learning have paved the way for further performance improvements of GNNs. However, methods used for extracting numerical node features from \emph{raw data} are still \emph{graph-agnostic} within standard GNN pipelines. This practice is sub-optimal as it prevents one from fully utilizing potential correlations between graph topology and node attributes. To mitigate this issue, we propose a new self-supervised learning framework, Graph Information Aided Node feature exTraction (GIANT). GIANT makes use of the eXtreme Multi-label Classification (XMC) formalism, which is crucial for fine-tuning the language model based on graph information, and scales to large datasets. We also provide a theoretical analysis that justifies the use of XMC over link prediction and motivates integrating XR-Transformers, a powerful method for solving XMC problems, into the GIANT framework. We demonstrate the superior performance of GIANT over the standard GNN pipeline on Open Graph Benchmark datasets: For example, we improve the accuracy of the top-ranked method GAMLP from $68.25\%$ to $69.67\%$, SGC from $63.29\%$ to $66.10\%$ and MLP from $47.24\%$ to $61.10\%$ on the ogbn-papers100M dataset by leveraging GIANT.

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