Session

Oral 2 Track 4: Reinforcement Learning

AD10

Abstract:

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Mon 1 May 6:00 - 6:10 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Multi-skill Mobile Manipulation for Object Rearrangement

Jiayuan Gu · Devendra Singh Chaplot · Hao Su · Jitendra Malik

We study a modular approach to tackle long-horizon mobile manipulation tasks for object rearrangement, which decomposes a full task into a sequence of subtasks. To tackle the entire task, prior work chains multiple stationary manipulation skills with a point-goal navigation skill, which are learned individually on subtasks. Although more effective than monolithic end-to-end RL policies, this framework suffers from compounding errors in skill chaining, e.g., navigating to a bad location where a stationary manipulation skill can not reach its target to manipulate. To this end, we propose that the manipulation skills should include mobility to have flexibility in interacting with the target object from multiple locations and at the same time the navigation skill could have multiple end points which lead to successful manipulation. We operationalize these ideas by implementing mobile manipulation skills rather than stationary ones and training a navigation skill trained with region goal instead of point goal. We evaluate our multi-skill mobile manipulation method M3 on 3 challenging long-horizon mobile manipulation tasks in the Home Assistant Benchmark (HAB), and show superior performance as compared to the baselines.

Mon 1 May 6:10 - 6:20 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
The Surprising Effectiveness of Equivariant Models in Domains with Latent Symmetry

Dian Wang · Jung Yeon Park · Neel Sortur · Lawson Wong · Robin Walters · Robert Platt

Extensive work has demonstrated that equivariant neural networks can significantly improve sample efficiency and generalization by enforcing an inductive bias in the network architecture. These applications typically assume that the domain symmetry is fully described by explicit transformations of the model inputs and outputs. However, many real-life applications contain only latent or partial symmetries which cannot be easily described by simple transformations of the input. In these cases, it is necessary to learn symmetry in the environment instead of imposing it mathematically on the network architecture. We discover, surprisingly, that imposing equivariance constraints that do not exactly match the domain symmetry is very helpful in learning the true symmetry in the environment. We differentiate between extrinsic and incorrect symmetry constraints and show that while imposing incorrect symmetry can impede the model's performance, imposing extrinsic symmetry can actually improve performance. We demonstrate that an equivariant model can significantly outperform non-equivariant methods on domains with latent symmetries both in supervised learning and in reinforcement learning for robotic manipulation and control problems.

Mon 1 May 6:20 - 6:30 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
A System for Morphology-Task Generalization via Unified Representation and Behavior Distillation

Hiroki Furuta · Yusuke Iwasawa · Yutaka Matsuo · Shixiang Gu

The rise of generalist large-scale models in natural language and vision has made us expect that a massive data-driven approach could achieve broader generalization in other domains such as continuous control. In this work, we explore a method for learning a single policy that manipulates various forms of agents to solve various tasks by distilling a large amount of proficient behavioral data. In order to align input-output (IO) interface among multiple tasks and diverse agent morphologies while preserving essential 3D geometric relations, we introduce morphology-task graph, which treats observations, actions and goals/task in a unified graph representation. We also develop MxT-Bench for fast large-scale behavior generation, which supports procedural generation of diverse morphology-task combinations with a minimal blueprint and hardware-accelerated simulator. Through efficient representation and architecture selection on MxT-Bench, we find out that a morphology-task graph representation coupled with Transformer architecture improves the multi-task performances compared to other baselines including recent discrete tokenization, and provides better prior knowledge for zero-shot transfer or sample efficiency in downstream multi-task imitation learning. Our work suggests large diverse offline datasets, unified IO representation, and policy representation and architecture selection through supervised learning form a promising approach for studying and advancing morphology-task generalization.

Mon 1 May 6:30 - 6:40 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 5% paper
Sample-Efficient Reinforcement Learning by Breaking the Replay Ratio Barrier

Pierluca D'Oro · Max Schwarzer · Evgenii Nikishin · Pierre-Luc Bacon · Marc G Bellemare · Aaron Courville

Increasing the replay ratio, the number of updates of an agent's parameters per environment interaction, is an appealing strategy for improving the sample efficiency of deep reinforcement learning algorithms. In this work, we show that fully or partially resetting the parameters of deep reinforcement learning agents causes better replay ratio scaling capabilities to emerge. We push the limits of the sample efficiency of carefully-modified algorithms by training them using an order of magnitude more updates than usual, significantly improving their performance in the Atari 100k and DeepMind Control Suite benchmarks. We then provide an analysis of the design choices required for favorable replay ratio scaling to be possible and discuss inherent limits and tradeoffs.

Mon 1 May 6:40 - 6:50 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Powderworld: A Platform for Understanding Generalization via Rich Task Distributions

Kevin Frans · Phillip Isola

One of the grand challenges of reinforcement learning is the ability to generalize to new tasks. However, general agents require a set of rich, diverse tasks to train on. Designing a `foundation environment' for such tasks is tricky -- the ideal environment would support a range of emergent phenomena, an expressive task space, and fast runtime. To take a step towards addressing this research bottleneck, this work presents Powderworld, a lightweight yet expressive simulation environment running directly on the GPU. Within Powderworld, two motivating task distributions are presented, one for world-modelling and one for reinforcement learning. Each contains hand-designed test tasks to examine generalization. Experiments indicate that increasing the environment's complexity improves generalization for world models, yet causes reinforcement learning agents to struggle. Powderworld aims to support the study of generalization by providing a source of diverse tasks arising from the same core rules.

Mon 1 May 6:50 - 7:00 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 5% paper
Near-optimal Policy Identification in Active Reinforcement Learning

Xiang Li · Viraj Mehta · Johannes Kirschner · Ian Char · Willie Neiswanger · Jeff Schneider · Andreas Krause · Ilija Bogunovic

Many real-world reinforcement learning tasks require control of complex dynamical systems that involve both costly data acquisition processes and large state spaces. In cases where the expensive transition dynamics can be readily evaluated at specified states (e.g., via a simulator), agents can operate in what is often referred to as planning with a \emph{generative model}. We propose the AE-LSVI algorithm for best policy identification, a novel variant of the kernelized least-squares value iteration (LSVI) algorithm that combines optimism with pessimism for active exploration (AE). AE-LSVI provably identifies a near-optimal policy \emph{uniformly} over an entire state space and achieves polynomial sample complexity guarantees that are independent of the number of states. When specialized to the recently introduced offline contextual Bayesian optimization setting, our algorithm achieves improved sample complexity bounds. Experimentally, we demonstrate that AE-LSVI outperforms other RL algorithms in a variety of environments when robustness to the initial state is required.

Mon 1 May 7:00 - 7:10 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
BC-IRL: Learning Generalizable Reward Functions from Demonstrations

Andrew Szot · Amy Zhang · Dhruv Batra · Zsolt Kira · Franziska Meier

How well do reward functions learned with inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) generalize? We illustrate that state-of-the-art IRL algorithms, which maximize a maximum-entropy objective, learn rewards that overfit to the demonstrations. Such rewards struggle to provide meaningful rewards for states not covered by the demonstrations, a major detriment when using the reward to learn policies in new situations. We introduce BC-IRL a new inverse reinforcement learning method that learns reward functions that generalize better when compared to maximum-entropy IRL approaches. In contrast to the MaxEnt framework, which learns to maximize rewards around demonstrations, BC-IRL updates reward parameters such that the policy trained with the new reward matches the expert demonstrations better. We show that BC-IRL learns rewards that generalize better on an illustrative simple task and two continuous robotic control tasks, achieving over twice the success rate of baselines in challenging generalization settings.

Mon 1 May 7:10 - 7:20 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Learning About Progress From Experts

Jake Bruce · Ankit Anand · Bogdan Mazoure · Rob Fergus

Many important tasks involve some notion of long-term progress in multiple phases: e.g. to clean a shelf it must be cleared of items, cleaning products applied, and then the items placed back on the shelf. In this work, we explore the use of expert demonstrations in long-horizon tasks to learn a monotonically increasing function that summarizes progress. This function can then be used to aid agent exploration in environments with sparse rewards. As a case study we consider the NetHack environment, which requires long-term progress at a variety of scales and is far from being solved by existing approaches. In this environment, we demonstrate that by learning a model of long-term progress from expert data containing only observations, we can achieve efficient exploration in challenging sparse tasks, well beyond what is possible with current state-of-the-art approaches. We have made the curated gameplay dataset used in this work available at https://github.com/deepmind/nao_top10.