Session

Oral 3 Track 3: Generative models

AD10

Abstract:

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Tue 2 May 1:00 - 1:10 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
The Role of ImageNet Classes in Fréchet Inception Distance

Tuomas Kynkäänniemi · Tero Karras · Miika Aittala · Timo Aila · Jaakko Lehtinen

Fréchet Inception Distance (FID) is the primary metric for ranking models in data-driven generative modeling. While remarkably successful, the metric is known to sometimes disagree with human judgement. We investigate a root cause of these discrepancies, and visualize what FID "looks at" in generated images. We show that the feature space that FID is (typically) computed in is so close to the ImageNet classifications that aligning the histograms of Top-$N$ classifications between sets of generated and real images can reduce FID substantially — without actually improving the quality of results. Thus, we conclude that FID is prone to intentional or accidental distortions. As a practical example of an accidental distortion, we discuss a case where an ImageNet pre-trained FastGAN achieves a FID comparable to StyleGAN2, while being worse in terms of human evaluation.

Tue 2 May 1:10 - 1:20 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Learning Diffusion Bridges on Constrained Domains

Xingchao Liu · Lemeng Wu · Mao Ye · Qiang Liu

Diffusion models have achieved promising results on generative learning recently. However, because diffusion processes are most naturally applied on the unconstrained Euclidean space $\mathrm{R}^d$, key challenges arise for developing diffusion based models for learning data on constrained and structured domains. We present a simple and unified framework to achieve this that can be easily adopted to various types of domains, including product spaces of any type (be it bounded/unbounded, continuous/discrete, categorical/ordinal, or their mix). In our model, the diffusion process is driven by a drift force that is a sum of two terms: one singular force designed by $Doob's~ h$-$transform$ that ensures all outcomes of the process to belong to the desirable domain, and one non-singular neural force field that is trained to make sure the outcome follows the data distribution statistically. Experiments show that our methods perform superbly on generating tabular data, images, semantic segments and 3D point clouds.

Tue 2 May 1:20 - 1:30 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Flow Straight and Fast: Learning to Generate and Transfer Data with Rectified Flow

Xingchao Liu · Chengyue Gong · Qiang Liu

We present rectified flow, a simple approach to learning (neural) ordinary differential equation (ODE) models to transport between two empirically observed distributions $\pi_0$ and $\pi_1$, hence providing a unified solution to generative modeling and domain transfer, among various other tasks involving distribution transport. The idea of rectified flow is to learn the ODE to follow the straight paths connecting the points drawn from $\pi_0$ and $\pi_1$ as much as possible. This is achieved by solving a straightforward nonlinear least squares optimization problem, which can be easily scaled to large models without introducing extra parameters beyond standard supervised learning. The straight paths are the shortest paths between two points, and can be simulated exactly without time discretization and hence yield computationally efficient models. We show that, by learning a rectified flow from data, we effectively turn an arbitrary coupling of $\pi_0$ and $\pi_1$ to a new deterministic coupling with provably non-increasing convex transport costs. In addition, with a ``reflow" procedure that iteratively learns a new rectified flow from the data bootstrapped from the previous one, we obtain a sequence of flows with increasingly straight paths, which can be simulated accurately with coarse time discretization in the inference phase. In empirical studies, we show that rectified flow performs superbly on image generation, image-to-image translation, and domain adaptation. In particular, on image generation and translation, our method yields nearly straight flows that give high quality results even with \emph{a single Euler discretization step}. Code is available at \url{https://github.com/gnobitab/RectifiedFlow}.

Tue 2 May 1:30 - 1:40 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Learning multi-scale local conditional probability models of images

Zahra Kadkhodaie · Florentin Guth · Stéphane Mallat · Eero Simoncelli

Deep neural networks can learn powerful prior probability models for images, as evidenced by the high-quality generations obtained with recent score-based diffusion methods. But the means by which these networks capture complex global statistical structure, apparently without suffering from the curse of dimensionality, remain a mystery. To study this, we incorporate diffusion methods into a multi-scale decomposition, reducing dimensionality by assuming a stationary local Markov model for wavelet coefficients conditioned on coarser-scale coefficients. We instantiate this model using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with local receptive fields, which enforce both the stationarity and Markov properties. Global structures are captured using a CNN with receptive fields covering the entire (but small) low-pass image. We test this model on a dataset of face images, which are highly non-stationary and contain large-scale geometric structures.Remarkably, denoising, super-resolution, and image synthesis results all demonstrate that these structures can be captured with significantly smaller conditioning neighborhoods than required by a Markov model implemented in the pixel domain. Our results show that score estimation for large complex images can be reduced to low-dimensional Markov conditional models across scales, alleviating the curse of dimensionality.

Tue 2 May 1:40 - 1:50 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
An Image is Worth One Word: Personalizing Text-to-Image Generation using Textual Inversion

Rinon Gal · Yuval Alaluf · Yuval Atzmon · Or Patashnik · Amit Bermano · Gal Chechik · Daniel Cohen-Or

Text-to-image models offer unprecedented freedom to guide creation through natural language. Yet, it is unclear how such freedom can be exercised to generate images of specific unique concepts, modify their appearance, or compose them in new roles and novel scenes.In other words, we ask: how can we use language-guided models to turn *our* cat into a painting, or imagine a new product based on *our* favorite toy? Here we present a simple approach that allows such creative freedom. Using only $3$-$5$ images of a user-provided concept, like an object or a style, we learn to represent it through new ``words" in the embedding space of a frozen text-to-image model.These ``words" can be composed into natural language sentences, guiding *personalized* creation in an intuitive way.Notably, we find evidence that a *single* word embedding is sufficient for capturing unique and varied concepts. We compare our approach to a wide range of baselines, and demonstrate that it can more faithfully portray the concepts across a range of applications and tasks. Our code, data and new words will be available.

Tue 2 May 1:50 - 2:00 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Rarity Score : A New Metric to Evaluate the Uncommonness of Synthesized Images

Jiyeon Han · Hwanil Choi · Yunjey Choi · Junho Kim · Jung-Woo Ha · Jaesik Choi

Evaluation metrics in image synthesis play a key role to measure performances of generative models. However, most metrics mainly focus on image fidelity. Existing diversity metrics are derived by comparing distributions, and thus they cannot quantify the diversity or rarity degree of each generated image. In this work, we propose a new evaluation metric, called `rarity score', to measure both image-wise uncommonness and model-wise diversified generation performance. We first show empirical observation that typical samples are close to each other and distinctive samples are far from each other in nearest-neighbor distances on latent spaces represented by feature extractor networks such as VGG16. We then show that one can effectively filter typical or distinctive samples with the proposed metric. We also use our metric to demonstrate that the extent to which different generative models produce rare images can be effectively compared. Further, our metric can be used to compare rarities between datasets that share the same concept such as CelebA-HQ and FFHQ. Finally, we analyze the use of metrics in different designs of feature extractors to better understand the relationship between feature spaces and resulting high-rarity images. Code will be publicly available for the research community.

Tue 2 May 2:00 - 2:10 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Deterministic training of generative autoencoders using invertible layers

Gianluigi Silvestri · Daan Roos · Luca Ambrogioni

In this work, we provide a deterministic alternative to the stochastic variational training of generative autoencoders. We refer to these new generative autoencoders as AutoEncoders within Flows (AEF), since the encoder and decoder are defined as affine layers of an overall invertible architecture. This results in a deterministic encoding of the data, as opposed to the stochastic encoding of VAEs. The paper introduces two related families of AEFs. The first family relies on a partition of the ambient space and is trained by exact maximum-likelihood. The second family exploits a deterministic expansion of the ambient space and is trained by maximizing the log-probability in this extended space. This latter case leaves complete freedom in the choice of encoder, decoder and prior architectures, making it a drop-in replacement for the training of existing VAEs and VAE-style models. We show that these AEFs can have strikingly higher performance than architecturally identical VAEs in terms of log-likelihood and sample quality, especially for low dimensional latent spaces. Importantly, we show that AEF samples are substantially sharper than VAE samples.

Tue 2 May 2:10 - 2:20 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 5% paper
3D generation on ImageNet

Ivan Skorokhodov · Aliaksandr Siarohin · Yinghao Xu · Jian Ren · Hsin-Ying Lee · Peter Wonka · Sergey Tulyakov

All existing 3D-from-2D generators are designed for well-curated single-category datasets, where all the objects have (approximately) the same scale, 3D location, and orientation, and the camera always points to the center of the scene. This makes them inapplicable to diverse, in-the-wild datasets of non-alignable scenes rendered from arbitrary camera poses. In this work, we develop a 3D generator with Generic Priors (3DGP): a 3D synthesis framework with more general assumptions about the training data, and show that it scales to very challenging datasets, like ImageNet. Our model is based on three new ideas. First, we incorporate an inaccurate off-the-shelf depth estimator into 3D GAN training via a special depth adaptation module to handle the imprecision. Then, we create a flexible camera model and a regularization strategy for it to learn its distribution parameters during training. Finally, we extend the recent ideas of transferring knowledge from pretrained classifiers into GANs for patch-wise trained models by employing a simple distillation-based technique on top of the discriminator. It achieves more stable training than the existing methods and speeds up the convergence by at least 40%. We explore our model on four datasets: SDIP Dogs $256^2$, SDIP Elephants $256^2$, LSUN Horses $256^2$, and ImageNet $256^2$ and demonstrate that 3DGP outperforms the recent state-of-the-art in terms of both texture and geometry quality. Code and visualizations: https://snap-research.github.io/3dgp.