Skip to yearly menu bar Skip to main content

Workshop: Deep Learning for Code

A Systematic Evaluation of Large Language Models of Code

Frank F Xu · Uri Alon · Graham Neubig · Vincent Hellendoorn


Large language models (LMs) of code have recently shown tremendous promise in completing code and synthesizing code from natural language descriptions. However, the current state-of-the-art code LMs (e.g., Codex (Chen et al., 2021)) are not publicly available, leaving many questions about their model and data design decisions. We aim to fill in some of these blanks through a systematic evaluation of the largest existing models: Codex, GPT-J, GPT-Neo, GPT-NeoX-20B, and CodeParrot, across various programming languages. Although Codex itself is not open-source, we find that existing open-source models do achieve close results in some programming languages, although targeted mainly for natural language modeling. We further identify an important missing piece in the form of a large open-source model trained exclusively on a multi-lingual corpus of code. We release a new model, PolyCoder, with 2.7B parameters based on the GPT-2architecture, which was trained on 249GB of code across 12 programming languages on a single machine. In the C programming language, PolyCoder outperforms all models including Codex. Our trained models are open-source and publicly available at, which enables future research and application in this area.

Chat is not available.