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Non-Linear Operator Approximations for Initial Value Problems

Gaurav Gupta · Xiongye Xiao · Radu Balan · Paul Bogdan


Keywords: [ partial differential equations ]

Abstract: Time-evolution of partial differential equations is the key to model several dynamical processes, events forecasting but the operators associated with such problems are non-linear. We propose a Padé approximation based exponential neural operator scheme for efficiently learning the map between a given initial condition and activities at a later time. The multiwavelets bases are used for space discretization. By explicitly embedding the exponential operators in the model, we reduce the training parameters and make it more data-efficient which is essential in dealing with scarce real-world datasets. The Padé exponential operator uses a $\textit{recurrent structure with shared parameters}$ to model the non-linearity compared to recent neural operators that rely on using multiple linear operator layers in succession. We show theoretically that the gradients associated with the recurrent Padé network are bounded across the recurrent horizon. We perform experiments on non-linear systems such as Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Kuramoto–Sivashinsky (KS) equations to show that the proposed approach achieves the best performance and at the same time is data-efficient. We also show that urgent real-world problems like Epidemic forecasting (for example, COVID-19) can be formulated as a 2D time-varying operator problem. The proposed Padé exponential operators yield better prediction results ($\textbf{53\%} (\textbf{52\%})$ better MAE than best neural operator (non-neural operator deep learning model)) compared to state-of-the-art forecasting models.

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