Session

Oral 6 Track 2: Infrastructure & Social Aspects of Machine Learning

AD11

Abstract:

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Wed 3 May 6:00 - 6:10 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 5% paper
DaxBench: Benchmarking Deformable Object Manipulation with Differentiable Physics

Siwei Chen · Yiqing Xu · Cunjun Yu · Linfeng Li · Xiao Ma · Zhongwen Xu · David Hsu

Deformable object manipulation (DOM) is a long-standing challenge in robotics and has attracted significant interest recently. This paper presents DaXBench, a differentiable simulation framework for DOM. While existing work often focuses on a specific type of deformable objects, DaXBench supports fluid, rope, cloth ...; it provides a general-purpose benchmark to evaluate widely different DOM methods, including planning, imitation learning, and reinforcement learning. DaXBench combines recent advances in deformable object simulation with JAX, a high-performance computational framework. All DOM tasks in DaXBench are wrapped with the OpenAI Gym API for easy integration with DOM algorithms. We hope that DaXBench provides to the research community a comprehensive, standardized benchmark and a valuable tool to support the development and evaluation of new DOM methods. The code and video are available online.

Wed 3 May 6:10 - 6:20 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 5% paper
Betty: An Automatic Differentiation Library for Multilevel Optimization

Sang Choe · Willie Neiswanger · Pengtao Xie · Eric Xing

Gradient-based multilevel optimization (MLO) has gained attention as a framework for studying numerous problems, ranging from hyperparameter optimization and meta-learning to neural architecture search and reinforcement learning. However, gradients in MLO, which are obtained by composing best-response Jacobians via the chain rule, are notoriously difficult to implement and memory/compute intensive. We take an initial step towards closing this gap by introducing Betty, a software library for large-scale MLO. At its core, we devise a novel dataflow graph for MLO, which allows us to (1) develop efficient automatic differentiation for MLO that reduces the computational complexity from $\mathcal{O}(d^3)$ to $\mathcal{O}(d^2)$, (2) incorporate systems support such as mixed-precision and data-parallel training for scalability, and (3) facilitate implementation of MLO programs of arbitrary complexity while allowing a modular interface for diverse algorithmic and systems design choices. We empirically demonstrate that Betty can be used to implement an array of MLO programs, while also observing up to 11% increase in test accuracy, 14% decrease in GPU memory usage, and 20% decrease in training wall time over existing implementations on multiple benchmarks. We also showcase that Betty enables scaling MLO to models with hundreds of millions of parameters. We open-source the code at https://github.com/leopard-ai/betty.

Wed 3 May 6:20 - 6:30 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 5% paper
WikiWhy: Answering and Explaining Cause-and-Effect Questions

Matthew Ho · Aditya Sharma · Justin Chang · Michael Saxon · Sharon Levy · Yujie Lu · William Wang

As large language models (LLMs) grow larger and more sophisticated, assessing their "reasoning" capabilities in natural language grows more challenging. Recent question answering (QA) benchmarks that attempt to assess reasoning are often limited by a narrow scope of covered situations and subject matters. We introduce WikiWhy, a QA dataset built around a novel auxiliary task: explaining why an answer is true in natural language. WikiWhy contains over 9,000 "why" question-answer-rationale triples, grounded on Wikipedia facts across a diverse set of topics. Each rationale is a set of supporting statements connecting the question to the answer. WikiWhy serves as a benchmark for the reasoning capabilities of LLMs because it demands rigorous explicit rationales for each answer to demonstrate the acquisition of implicit commonsense knowledge, which is unlikely to be easily memorized. GPT-3 baselines achieve only 38.7% human-evaluated correctness in the end-to-end answer & explain condition, leaving significant room for future improvements.

Wed 3 May 6:30 - 6:40 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
MEDFAIR: Benchmarking Fairness for Medical Imaging

Yongshuo Zong · Yongxin Yang · Timothy Hospedales

A multitude of work has shown that machine learning-based medical diagnosis systems can be biased against certain subgroups of people. This has motivated a growing number of bias mitigation algorithms that aim to address fairness issues in machine learning. However, it is difficult to compare their effectiveness in medical imaging for two reasons. First, there is little consensus on the criteria to assess fairness. Second, existing bias mitigation algorithms are developed under different settings, e.g., datasets, model selection strategies, backbones, and fairness metrics, making a direct comparison and evaluation based on existing results impossible. In this work, we introduce MEDFAIR, a framework to benchmark the fairness of machine learning models for medical imaging. MEDFAIR covers eleven algorithms from various categories, ten datasets from different imaging modalities, and three model selection criteria. Through extensive experiments, we find that the under-studied issue of model selection criterion can have a significant impact on fairness outcomes; while in contrast, state-of-the-art bias mitigation algorithms do not significantly improve fairness outcomes over empirical risk minimization (ERM) in both in-distribution and out-of-distribution settings. We evaluate fairness from various perspectives and make recommendations for different medical application scenarios that require different ethical principles. Our framework provides a reproducible and easy-to-use entry point for the development and evaluation of future bias mitigation algorithms in deep learning. Code is available at https://github.com/ys-zong/MEDFAIR.

Wed 3 May 6:40 - 6:50 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Semantic Uncertainty: Linguistic Invariances for Uncertainty Estimation in Natural Language Generation

Lorenz Kuhn · Yarin Gal · Sebastian Farquhar

We introduce a method to measure uncertainty in large language models. For tasks like question answering, it is essential to know when we can trust the natural language outputs of foundation models. We show that measuring uncertainty in natural language is challenging because of "semantic equivalence"—different sentences can mean the same thing. To overcome these challenges we introduce semantic entropy—an entropy which incorporates linguistic invariances created by shared meanings. Our method is unsupervised, uses only a single model, and requires no modifications to off-the-shelf language models. In comprehensive ablation studies we show that the semantic entropy is more predictive of model accuracy on question answering data sets than comparable baselines.

Wed 3 May 6:50 - 7:00 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 5% paper
Confidential-PROFITT: Confidential PROof of FaIr Training of Trees

Ali Shahin Shamsabadi · Sierra Wyllie · Nicholas Franzese · Natalie Dullerud · Sébastien Gambs · Nicolas Papernot · Xiao Wang · Adrian Weller

Post hoc auditing of model fairness suffers from potential drawbacks: (1) auditing may be highly sensitive to the test samples chosen; (2) the model and/or its training data may need to be shared with an auditor thereby breaking confidentiality. We address these issues by instead providing a certificate that demonstrates that the learning algorithm itself is fair, and hence, as a consequence, so too is the trained model. We introduce a method to provide a confidential proof of fairness for training, in the context of widely used decision trees, which we term Confidential-PROFITT. We propose novel fair decision tree learning algorithms along with customized zero-knowledge proof protocols to obtain a proof of fairness that can be audited by a third party. Using zero-knowledge proofs enables us to guarantee confidentiality of both the model and its training data. We show empirically that bounding the information gain of each node with respect to the sensitive attributes reduces the unfairness of the final tree. In extensive experiments on the COMPAS, Communities and Crime, Default Credit, and Adult datasets, we demonstrate that a company can use Confidential-PROFITT to certify the fairness of their decision tree to an auditor in less than 2 minutes, thus indicating the applicability of our approach. This is true for both the demographic parity and equalized odds definitions of fairness. Finally, we extend Confidential-PROFITT to apply to ensembles of trees.

Wed 3 May 7:00 - 7:10 PDT

In-Person Oral presentation / top 25% paper
Disparate Impact in Differential Privacy from Gradient Misalignment

Maria Esipova · Atiyeh Ashari Ghomi · Yaqiao Luo · Jesse Cresswell

As machine learning becomes more widespread throughout society, aspects including data privacy and fairness must be carefully considered, and are crucial for deployment in highly regulated industries. Unfortunately, the application of privacy enhancing technologies can worsen unfair tendencies in models. In particular, one of the most widely used techniques for private model training, differentially private stochastic gradient descent (DPSGD), frequently intensifies disparate impact on groups within data. In this work we study the fine-grained causes of unfairness in DPSGD and identify gradient misalignment due to inequitable gradient clipping as the most significant source. This observation leads us to a new method for reducing unfairness by preventing gradient misalignment in DPSGD.